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L’électrification intelligente au service de la transition énergétique

Smart electrification towards energy transition

Publié le 15 octobre 2013
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30 octobre 2013
10:00 - 12:00
Amphithéâtre A022
Bâtiment A (accueil)
Site Ampère, 11 rue des mathématiques, Saint Martin d'Hères

Sujet de la thèse : Power Architectures and Control Systems Associated for the Management of Shadows in Photovoltaic Plants

Jury  :

M. Felix FARRET,  Professeur à l'Université Fédérale de Santa Maria, Brésil, Rapporteur

M. Bruno ESTIBALS, Professeur à l'Université Paul Sabatier, Rapporteur

M. Bruno FRANCOIS, Professeur à l'Ecole Centrale de Lille, Rapporteur

M. Ambroise SCHELLMANNS, Maître de Conférences à l'Université de Tours, Examinateur

M. Jean-Christophe CREBIER, Directeur de Recherche CNRS au G2ELab, Co-directeur

M. Bertrand RAISON, Professeur à l'Université Joseph Fourier, Directeur de thèse

Résumé de la thèse  

Photovoltaic energy rates among the most mature renewable sources currently available in the market. However, its growing use in urban environment has met with an important obstacle: shadows. Their study present a two-fold challenge: understanding what they are and how they can be mitigated. While many authors have proposed different solutions for this problem, very few have tried to understand the shadow in its complexity. This thesis seeks, at the same time, a comprehensive view on the shadow itself while proposing a new solution to mitigate it. 

The comprehensive view of the shadow is proposed through an intermittency theory, where its optical properties and electrical consequences are taken into account. This theory provides the elements to review the current literature into a new perspective. The available solutions are, then, divided into two families: series and parallel. Series solutions employ several structures, each extracting the power of a reduced number of photovoltaic cells. As a consequence the impact of the shadow is restricted. Parallel solutions use few structures to redistribute the current between shaded and unshaded photovoltaic cells, thus sharing the impact of the shadow.

The new solution proposed to mitigate the shadow is a parallel system called PV Equalizer. Inspired from its battery equivalent, it has a different topology with a high integration potential, easily scalable but seemingly difficult to control. To prove its concept, a study is conducted to determine its functions. It is found to be capable of not only mitigating but also detecting the shadow. These functions are characterized and their results used to conceive a control algorithm. Finally, this algorithm is tested and validated in a prototype under real operating conditions. The system detected the presence of the shadow, chose the best way to mitigate it and raised the power output by roughly 40%.

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mise à jour le 15 octobre 2013

Université Grenoble Alpes